Step 1: Learn about diabetes...............................
Step 2: Know your diabetes ABCs.....................
Step 3: Manage your diabetes.............................
Step 4: Get routine care.....................................
Where to get help...............................................
4 Steps to Control
Your Diabetes. For Life.
This booklet presents four key steps to help you manage your diabetes and live a long and active life.
Step 1: Learn about diabetes.
Step 2: Know your diabetes ABCs.
Step 3: Manage your diabetes.
Step 4: Get routine care to avoid problems.
Diabetes is a serious disease. It affects almost every part of your body. That is why a health care team may help you take care of your diabetes:
• diabetes educator
• eye doctor
• foot doctor
• mental health counselor
• nurse practitioner
• social worker
• friends and family
You are the most important member of the team.
The q in this booklet show actions you can take to manage your diabetes.
Help your health care team make a diabetes care plan that will work for you.
Learn to make wise choices for your diabetes care each day.
Learn about diabetes.
Diabetes means that your blood glucose (blood sugar) is too high. Here are the main types of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes—the body does not make insulin. Insulin helps the body use glucose from food for energy. People with type 1 need to take insulin every day.
Type 2 diabetes—the body does not make or use insulin well. People with type 2 often need to take pills or insulin. Type 2 is the most common form of diabetes.
Gestational (jes-TAY-shon-al) diabetes mellitus (GDM)—occurs when a woman is pregnant. It raises her risk of getting another type of diabetes, mostly type 2, for the rest of her life. It also raises her child’s risk of being overweight and getting diabetes.
Diabetes is serious.
You may have heard people say they have “a touch of diabetes” or that their “sugar is a little high.” These words suggest that diabetes is not a serious disease. That is not correct. Diabetes is serious, but you can manage it!
All people with diabetes need to make healthy food choices, stay at a healthy weight, and be active every day.
Taking good care of yourself and your diabetes can help you feel better and avoid health problems caused by diabetes such as:
• heart attack and stroke
• eye problems that can lead to trouble seeing or going blind
• nerve damage that can cause your hands and feet to hurt, tingle, or feel numb. Some people may even lose a foot or a leg.
• kidney problems that can cause your kidneys to stop working
• gum disease and loss of teeth
When your blood glucose is close to normal you are likely to:
• have more energy
• be less tired and thirsty and urinate less often
• heal better and have fewer skin or bladder infections
• have fewer problems with your eyesight, skin, feet, and gums
Ask your health care team which type of diabetes you have.
Learn why diabetes is serious.
q Learn how caring for your diabetes helps you feel better today and in the future.
Know your diabetes ABCs.
Talk to you health care team about how to control your A1C, Blood pressure, and Cholesterol. This can help lower your chances of having a heart attack, stroke, or other diabetes problem. Here’s what the ABCs of diabetes stand for:
A for the A1C test (A-one-C).
It shows you how your blood glucose has been over the last three months. The A1C goal for most people is below 7.
High blood glucose levels can harm your heart and blood vessels, kidneys, feet, and eyes.
B for Blood pressure.
The goal for most people with diabetes is below 130/80.
High blood pressure makes your heart work too hard. It can cause heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease.
C for Cholesterol.
The LDL goal for most people is below 100.
The HDL goal for most people is above 40.
LDL or “bad” cholesterol can build up and clog your blood vessels. It can cause a heart attack or a stroke. HDL or “good” cholesterol helps remove cholesterol from your blood vessels.
Ask your health care team:
what your A1C, Blood pressure, and cholesterol numbers are
what your ABC numbers should be
what you need to do to reach your targets
Manage your diabetes.
Many people avoid the long-term problems of diabetes by taking good care of themselves. Work with your health care team to reach your ABC goals. Use this self-care plan.
• Use your diabetes food plan. If you do not have one, ask your health care team for one.
- Eat healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables, fish, lean meats, chicken or turkey without the skin, dry peas or beans, whole grains, and low-fat or skim milk and cheese.
- Keep fish and lean meat and poultry portions to about 3 ounces (or the size of a pack of cards). Bake, broil, or grill it.
- Eat foods that have less fat and salt.
- Eat foods with more fiber such as whole-grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta.
• Get 30 to 60 minutes of physical activity on most days of the week. Brisk walking is a great way to move more.
• Stay at a healthy weight by making healthy food choices and moving more.
• Ask for help if you feel down. A mental health counselor, support group, member of the clergy, friend, or family member will listen to your concerns and help you feel better.
• Learn to cope with stress. Stress can raise your blood glucose. While it is hard to remove stress from your life, you can learn to handle it.
• Stop smoking. Ask for help to quit.
• Take medicines even when you feel good. Ask you doctor if you need aspirin to prevent a heart attack or stroke. Tell your doctor if you cannot afford your medicine or if you have any side effects.
• Check your feet every day for cuts, blisters, red spots, and swelling. Call your health care team right away about any sores that won’t go away.
• Brush your teeth and floss every day to avoid problems with your mouth, teeth, or gums.
• Check your blood glucose. You may want to test it one or more times a day.
• Check your blood pressure. If your doctor advises.
• Report any changes in your eyesight to your doctor.
Talk to your health care team about your blood glucose targets. Ask how and when to test your blood glucose and how to use the results to manage your diabetes.
Use this plan as a guide to your self-care.
Discuss how your self-care plan is working for you each time you visit your health care team
Get routine care to avoid problems.
See your health care team at least twice a year to find and treat problems early. Discuss what steps you can take to reach your goals.
At each visit get a:
• blood pressure check
• foot check
• weight check
• review of your self-care plan shown in Step 3
Two times each year get an:
• A1C test—It may be checked more often if it is over 7
Once each year get a:
• cholesterol test
• triglyceride (try-GLISS-er-ide) test- a type of blood fat
• complete foot exam
• dental exam to check teeth and gums—tell your dentist you have diabetes
• dilated eye exam to check for eye problems
• flu shot
• urine and a blood test to check for kidney problems
At least once get a:
• pneumonia (nu-mo-nya) shot
Ask your health care team about these and other tests you may need. Ask what your results mean.
Write down the date and time of your next visit.
If you have Medicare, ask your health care team if Medicarewill cover some of the costs for
learning about healthy eating and diabetes self care special shoes, if you need them
Where to get help:
Many items are offered in English and Spanish.
National Diabetes Education Program
American Association of Diabetes Educators
American Diabetes Association
American Dietetic Association
American Heart Association
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
1-800-MEDICARE or (800-633-4227)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) is jointly sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with the support of more than 200 partner organizations.
โครงการให้ความรู้เรื่องโรคเบาหวานแห่งชาติ (NDEP) ของกรมบริการสุขภาพและประชาชนแห่งสหรัฐฯ ได้รับความอุปถัมภ์ร่วมกันจาก สถาบันสุขภาพแห่งชาติ (NIH) และ ศูนย์ควบคุมและป้องกันโรค (CDC) โดยการสนับสนุนขององค์กรหุ้นส่วนมากกว่า 200 แห่ง
Reviewed by Martha Funnell, MS, RN, CDE
Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center
ตรวจทานโดย Martha Funnell, MS, RN, CDE
Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center (ศูนย์วิจัยและอบรมโรคเบาหวานแห่งมิชิแกน)
Thai translation provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Multilingual Services
Thai translation reviewed by Dolradee Kate Moraras, American Diabetes Association, Alexandria VA
แปลเป็นภาษาไทยโดย Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Multilingual Services(แผนกบริการหลายภาษาประจำศูนย์ควบคุมและป้องกันโรค)
ตรวจทานการแปลภาษาไทยโดย ดลฤดี โมราราษฏร์ American Diabetes Association(สมาคมโรคเบาหวานอเมริกัน), Alexandria VA
NIH Publication No. NDEP-67TH • June 2007